Inter-State Variations in Human Development Differentials among Social Groups in India
This paper examines disparities by social group in educational and economic indicators in India and looks for inter-state variations in these. Data from the 1994 NCAER-HDI survey in rural India reveals that differentials in enrolment persist in most cases even when controlled for parental factors such as education and income indicating current direct effect of social group membership. The degree of disparity in social group differentials in economic indicators also varies across states, however the pattern is different. The regional pattern found in Hindu/Muslim educational disparities is not seen in economic conditions. Overall, the results show that though there are disparities among social groups in India, these are not uniform across states, either in magnitude or in direction, and in a few cases go against common perceptions. The study calls for assessments of social development programmes and movements in various states to see why the disparity has narrowed in some states but not in others.