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NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI 2020) assesses the extent of digitisation of land records and the quality of these land records in the States and Union Territories of India. Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Tamil Nadu emerged as the top States in the N-LRSI 2020. The index can help formulate State action plans to attain the goal of secure, assured land records that mirror ground realities and are generated by efficient titling services. The N-LRSI’s comparative assessment of States and UTs will make it possible for the States to learn from each other, with the best performing States showing how the supply of good, reliable, accessible digital land records has been improved. The Central Government can use the N-LRSI to reward and recognise States and UTs that perform better on the Index so that the others are encouraged to improve their standing.
N-LRSI 2020 comprises of two broad components – first, extent of digitization of land records with 60 per cent weightage and second, quality of land records with a weightage of 40 per cent. The first component of extent of digitization of land records, which aims to assess whether a state has made all its land records digitally available to citizens, looks at three dimensions—the text of the land records (also called the record of rights), the official map associated with a land record (also called cadastral maps), and the property registration process. The second component of the Index pertaining to quality of land records aims to assess if the land records are comprehensive and reliable–are ownership details updated as soon as a sale occurs, the extent of joint ownership, type of land use, land area on the record and on the map, and are encumbrances being recorded (other claims on the property such as mortgages and court cases). All these elements are closely connected to land disputes and to the ease with which transactions in land can be completed and legally recorded and then conveniently accessed.
Project Team: Deepak Sanan, D.B. Gupta, Prerna Prabhakar, Charu Jain, Somnath Sen, Anika Kapoor Yadav
Research Support: Kajal Gupta, Chandni Mishra, Falak Naz, Nishika Pal, Disha Saxena, Arundhati Sharma, Vijay Singh Bangari, Yuvraj Sunger, Apoorva, Rupal Taneja
N-LRSI 2020 with a maximum score of 100 comprises of four broad components – digitization of textual records (20 points); digitization of spatial records (20 points); digitization of registration process (20 points) and quality of land records (40 points). The scores for these components are derived in three broad ways – sample test checks, information obtained from Knowledge Correspondents (KCs) and web based search. This section provides the information and data that culminated into the final N-LRSI scores derived from its components and subcomponents.

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State-wise Sample Summary for Extent of Digitisation of Land Records
State-wise Sample Summary for Circle Rates (Registration Process)
State-wise Sample Summary for the Quality of Land Records
Area with Land Records
RoR Digitization: Comparison between DoLR & N-LRSI Test Checks
Reasons for Failure in RoR Test Checks
CM Digitization: Comparison between DoLR & N-LRSI Test Checks
Reasons for Failure in CM test checks
Reasons for Failure in Test Checks for Online Availability of Circle Rates
Status of Digitisation of Registration
Integration between Land Records and Registration
Extent of Joint Ownership
Land -use Congruence
Percentage of Plots by Range of Variation between area in ROR and CMs
Recording of Encumbrances
Extent of RoR Digitisation
Extent of CM Digitisation
Extent of Digitisation of Registration Processes
Quality of Land Records
Sensitivity Analysis: States/UTs Rankings for Scenario 1
Sensitivity Analysis: States/UTs Rankings for Scenario 2
Sensitivity Analysis: States/UTs Rankings for Scenario 3
Sensitivity Analysis: States/UTs Rankings for Scenario 4
Terms used for Textual Land Records across States/UTs
Terms used for Circle Rates across States/UTs
Textual Record Portal Details
Spatial Record Portal Details
NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI) 2020
NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI) 2020: Compendium
NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI) 2020: Overview
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